Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth.
Obsidian in America
when the Spanish conquistadors invaded the territory Maya, they were both impressed by this refined civilization, but also surprised that the Maya and the other peoples.
Mesoamerica have made a wonderful artistic and architectural work without using the metal. The metals, including gold, have never played a key role here. However a stone was essential: the obsidian.
Recent studies have shown that the influence and the supremacy of Teotihuacan the greater prehispanic city (200,000 people in 100 years BC until the 8th century) and of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) on all the territory Maya and Aztec came from the monopoly of trade in the obsidian. Indeed, this will be the proximity to the largest pool of obsidian which would determine the place of these cities.
In North America (Yellowstone) of the excavations have provided to highlight of trade axs on the obsidian (and this since 10,000 years). The city of Carokia (1st city of 20,000 per capita in North America, called the city of the sun) trader with 1/3 of the contain. There are only the tips of arrows or spears, as well as a few jewelry, considered by many Indians as talismans.
In South America, the obsidian was also a very great importance to the Incas. The oldest known civilization on this portion of the continent, the Mochicas, practiced human sacrifices to reconcile the elements, and control the climatic phenomena. The roche vitreous is of great importance for the Maya, because of its blocks they can manufacture a range of tools.
A pressure skillfully exercised with a wooden hook is enough to detach from the rough stone of sharp blades as razors. With the shots well placed, it also succeeds in manufacture in a short time a number of other tools, such as daggers and large knives. Of that a tool is worn or broken, it is thrown out or it fabricates another at a lower cost. The technology of the obsidian is inexpensive in terms of money and time, which makes this a real alternative to work too expensive and more laborious of the metal.
The Obsidian is also used to manufacture weapons and tools sacrificial of the Mesoamerican Reef project. In this valuable obsidian, it has also been done on jewelry and objects of worship. The fragile figures of a extreme thinness in the shape of leaves, but also of animals and human beings are of spectacular objects and eccentric manufactured only by way of offerings.
Obsidian in Egypt
Egyptians of the time of the Pharaohs already used the obsidian for its preciousness, its beauty and mystery. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York has in the presented collections of several vases and pots in obsidian black circles of gold from of El-Lahun (Egypt) and dates between the Xiith and the Xviiith Dynasty (1991 to 1293 av J. C. ).
The obsidian thanks to its density and its brilliance gives a mysterious and impenetrable aspect: the Egyptians, yet, the have used several times to achieve the eyes of statues. Using the most famous of which is without doubt the eyes of the funeral mask of the pharaoh Tutankhamun (1323 av.J. -C. ).
It is the ancient Rome (approx. – 753 BF. J. C. +500 AF. J. C. ) which resets to the mode in the west, when a certain Obsius the reported to Ethiopia and gives its name. Therefore, its beautiful color and glossy black, combined with its rarity, make it a stone of prestige used for the manufacture of ornaments and precious objects, such as vases, mirrors, pots to ointments, or simply mounted in gem.
Obsidian archaeological findings
Obsidian was used in all part of the world since prehistoric time.
Obsidian objects of devotion and ornament have been linked to giants of Tula and the Olmec.
Itzpapalotla «throttle of obsidian “goddess of the steppes of the north.
Was Tezcatlipoca god omniscient, omnipresent nothing escaped him thanks to its mirror of obsidian on the front.
The aztec emperor Itzcaatl was nicknamed the serpent of obsidian
The Maya king Pacal (born in 603 BC) who was found with a mask to the wards of obsidian (as well as a sphere in one hand, a cube in the other and of the water lilies in the hair).
In the 7th century on the site of Buenavist in Belize a young lord rested on a bed of 1300 knife of obsidian.
Was found different masks in the great temple of the Aztecs and to Teotihuacán. These masks were used to protect the dead in the water over
Obsidian Mystical value
Beyond its function of Peter of ornament, the obsidian is renowned for its beneficial energy.
It is used of the pre-Columbian civilizations for the manufacture of magical objects. Protective, it is a powerful shield against negative energies. Sharp, it pierced the darkness to reveal the truth about itself. Many of them dedicated to the gods have been found under the stelae, altars and entries on the houses.
When a prince dies have been throwing at the entrance to his burial thousands of small splinters of obsidian. Even if this rite has still not been interpreted, yet it shows the whole meaning, symbolic of this material, in the Maya culture.
The obsidian has been frequently used for the rituals of self-sacrifice by blood samples; the obsidian was regarded as “the blood of the earth” and during its use when these sacrifices is a symbolic character.
Of The knives of obsidian were used to remove the court of the prisoners in order to offer the still-beating to the gods.
macuahuitl is a wooden sword with obsidian blades
Mayan War Club Obsidian Sword